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Doctore

Doctore Beispiele aus dem PONS Wörterbuch (redaktionell geprüft)

Worttrennung: doc·tō·re. Grammatische Merkmale: Ablativ Singular des Substantivs doctor. doctore ist eine flektierte Form. Latein, Typ, Geschlecht, Flexionsart, Form, Deutsch. doctor, Nomen, Maskulinum, konsonantische Deklination, Grundform, Lehrer. doctore, Nomen, Maskulinum. Übersetzung im Kontext von „El Doctore“ in Spanisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: El Doctore normalmente está de pie antes que salga el Sol, con su látigo. Übersetzung im Kontext von „doctore“ in Spanisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context​: Sin embargo, hablo desde la posición de doctore. Übersetzungen zu "doctore". doctor (Substantiv) · doctor, doctoris N M · Lehrer: Dativ Singular, Maskulinum: Lokativ Singular, Maskulinum: Ablativ Singular.

Doctore

doc·tor [ˈdɒktəʳ, Am ˈdɑ:ktɚ] SUBST. 1. doctor (medic): doctor · Arzt. Doctor Who (nach der titelgebenden Frage [engl.] „Doktor wer?“) ist eine britische Science-Fiction-Fernsehserie, die seit von der BBC produziert wird. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für doctor im Online-Wörterbuch nzredbar.co (​Deutschwörterbuch). So macht sich der Doctor auf den Weg, um die Unendliche für mich zu finden. Bitte versuchen Sie es erneut. Con respeto, Dominus, Yo soy el Doctore. August wurde die erste Folge der achten Staffel Deep Breath weltweit gleichzeitig in ausgewählten Kinos ausgestrahlt. Has lo Doctore tu Doctore ordena. Staffel bei durchgängiger Zählweise jeweils samstags am frühen Nachmittag https://nzredbar.co/hd-filme-tv-stream/news-service-shopping-bei-t-online.php gekürzter Doug Und Carrie ausgestrahlt und danach wegen geringer Einschaltquoten vorzeitig aus dem Programm genommen. Staffel mit Peter Capaldi click to see more In Ihrem Browser ist Javascript deaktiviert. Doctore

As he prepares to die, he gives a final glanceto Oenomaus and is reminded of the purpose for which he fights. He brutally kills Caburus and is awarded freedom.

The next day, the gladiators celebrate Gannicus' victory. Oenomaus brings Gannicus his rudis - proof he is no longer a slave.

After Gannicus tells him that Melitta loved Oenomaus above all others, they give what they believe will be their final embrace and Gannicus departs having given his best friend a heartfelt goodbye.

Oenomaus as Doctore. Doctore is shown as a strong gladiator throughout the series. He is the only gladiator that Batiatus trusts with the training of his men.

He is seen throughout the season, always patrolling the training area and offering advice or discipline, only using his whip rather than his sword.

He has also formed a friendship with Crixus, though this relationship lacks the closeness of the one he shared with Gannicus. He introduces Spartacus and the other recruits to the life of being a gladiator, which included brutal training exercises and verbal assaults.

He originally dislikes the Thracian for his insubordination and unpredictability, although he gained some respect for him after he earned the mark of the brotherhood.

Later, he is assigned by Batiatus to train Crixus and Spartacus to fight as one against the Gladiator that originally bested him, Theokoles.

At first he attempts to have his dominus allow him to fight the giant again, he is refused and ordered to prepare his men for the fight.

Although he believed his efforts to be futile, believing Theokoles to be a truly supernatural creature, he adamantly attempted to train the two gladiators.

Oenomaus trains Spartacus and Crixus to face Theokoles. When the face the giant in arena, Crixus' arrogance leads him to be bested and wounded in nearly the same way as Doctore was, and it is only by the efforts of Spartacus, and Crixus' last feeble stand that the giant is killed, although Crixus nearly dies from his wounds.

As Spartacus prepares to escape once Sura arrives, he realizes that Doctore would be the only obstacle in his path. Spartacus brings him wine laced with a sleeping drug, but Doctore will not accept any, saying he has not had alcohol since Melitta's death.

He even speaks briefly of her before she died, and he then accepts the wine in good faith, collapsing after he has had his cup.

The next morning, Sura's caravan approaches the ludus, but Doctore wakes up earlier than Spartacus expected. Doctore moves to confront Spartacus for his misdoings, but stops short as he sees the dying Sura.

He softens momentarily as Spartacus shares his last words with Sura. Doctore refrains from confronting Spartacus, understanding his grief, and walks slowly back toward the Villa.

From then on the affair is forgotten. When Barca disappears from the ludus under the premise that he bought his freedom, Doctore is initially happy for him, but his suspicions are aroused when he learns that Pietros , Barca's lover, was not taken with him.

He questions both Naevia and Ashur who were at the scene of Barca's departure and notices discrepancies in their stories.

The subject is not delved into any further, however, until Naevia is cast out of the ludus due to her affair with Crixus being exposed by Ashur.

On her way out, Naevia tells Doctore the truth; that Barca was killed for supposed disloyalty which is revealed that Ashur had set Barca up to avoid paying him his winnings.

Doctore is horrified that a gladiator who brought great honor to the ludus as well as a dear friend of his would be discarded after he had rightfully earned his freedom.

Hence, his longstanding trust in Batiatus is left deeply shaken. On the eve of Batiatus' celebration for receiving patronage from Claudius Glaber , Doctore watches as the Roman guards abuse the gladiators needlessly.

He brings the matter to Batiatus, who dismisses it. He then questions Barca's murder and Batiatus dismisses that also, lying that Barca disobeyed his orders and had to be punished for it, but Doctore doesn't seem convinced especially about Ashur's involvement.

Batiatus then announces that those matters will soon be Doctore's responsibility as Batiatus has prepared documents to free Doctore and hand the ludus over to him, and he calls Doctore by his real name: Oenomaus.

He then leaves to give Crixus notice that he will fight to the death with Spartacus at Batiatus' celebration. At the celebration, Doctore observes the deathmatch between Spartacus and Crixus.

He notices something is off as Crixus motions toward Spartacus, who leaps off the shield and onto the balcony of the villa, killing Sextus.

Just as Spartacus moves against Batiatus, Doctore lashes his whip and catches his arm, saving Batiatus.

Crixus cuts the whip and moves to take his vengeance on the guards along with the other gladiators.

Doctore reaches Crixus and demands to know the reason for the rebellion and Crixus explains Batiatus' other deceptions: that Sura was also murdered on Batiatus' orders and that he had Crixus' food poisoned to ensure his death.

Doctore, enraged, chases Ashur down to the gladiators' baths and confronts him regarding his lies about Barca 's fate.

A brief duel ensues and Doctore emerges victorious as Ashur pleads for an honorable death. Granting his last wish, Doctore prepares for the killing strike just as Ashur whips around and stabs him in the leg, fleeing immediately after.

Doctore chases Ashur to the courtyard, but Ashur manages to escape. He finds Spartacus just as Aurelia kills Numerius , and asks "How many more must die?

Spartacus replies, "I see but one. Batiatus pleads for "Oenomaus," revealing his true name to the gladiators, but Doctore remains silent and watches as Batiatus drops his sword and is killed by Spartacus.

He leaves the ludus, along with the other gladiators and slaves, as they prepare to escape and exact their revenge on Rome.

Having forsaken his title of Doctore, Oenomaus abandons the other slaves and wanders Capua in disguise, and takes to watching the continued games in the arena.

However, with both the houses of Solonius and Batiatus no longer providing gladiators for the crowd to watch, the games are pathetic in comparison to those of previous years.

Later, he is accosted in the streets at night by a group of men whom have recognized him and wish to claim the price on his head.

They attempt to kill him, but he easily slaughters them. That morning he witnesses the arrival of Praetor Claudius Glaber and his contingent of Roman soldiers, capable of wiping out the newly formed resistance.

Oenomaus seeks Spartacus and the other rebels in the sewers and warns them of the impending attack, although refusing to help them.

With nothing left to live for, he willingly returns to "the only place left for an animal without honor": The Pit. He applies the white face-paint once used to humiliate him, and begins fighting any opponent that will face him under the alias Addonexus , hoping to be killed eventually.

His first opponent - Liberius - wounds him in the shoulder, but Oenomaus is victorious. Not only is he victorious, but he requests to be pitted against more fighters.

He continues to battle opponents, until one - Caratacus - nearly beats him to death with a hammer. Before he can finish Oenomaus off, however, Catatacus is killed by Ashur , as he leaps into the arena to capture his former teacher in his weakened condition.

The Syrian then presents the former Doctore to Glaber, having been working in secret with Lucretia, and staging the capture as a gift from the gods.

Oenomaus being tortured and interrogated by Ashur. After capture by Ashur, Oenomaus goes through painful torture at his hands in hopes of breaking him and making him give up Spartacus' location.

However, this does not work and a tired Ashur attempts to kill Oenomaus out of frustration, but Lucretia stops him from doing so.

Soon after, Ashur tells Oenomaus this and it enrages him to the point that he mistakenly reveals the location of Spartacus and the rebels.

Crixus , Rhaskos , and Acer , are imprisoned in the ludus along with Oenomaus. Upon seeing him, Crixus tells Oenomaus of how they have found Naevia, but Oenomaus tells him that women are delicate creatures, unable to shift his thoughts from his wife's betrayal.

The prisoners are then presented to a party of Roman nobles, where Acer is tortured and killed and Praetor Varinius condemning the rest to die fighting in the arena.

After much waiting, Oenomaus, Crixus, and Rhaskos are presented in the arena for execution, with their hands and legs chained and each armed with a single, blunt sword.

They realize that the "fight" to come is but a show: they have been given inferior weapons to further remove any chance of survival. They are shocked to discover that Gannicus has been recruited to fight among the opposing gladiators.

When Crixus asks why Gannicus would do such a thing, Oenomaus answers by saying that he is a man without honor.

Gannicus awkwardly greets his former brother by saying they at last face each other upon the sands as Melitta had always feared. Oenomaus questions Gannicus asking if it was true that he slept with Melitta the night she died.

Gannicus hesitates to answer, and Oenomaus, believing this to be a yes, ferociously attacks in response, beginning the games.

Gannicus and Oenomaus focus solely on each other, unaware that the rebels are secretly in the arena. Oenomaus kicks Gannicus, which causes him to fall to the ground on his back, and would have killed Gannicus despite his constraints, but an enemy gladiator interferes.

As the two begin fighting again, they appear evenly matched, but Gannicus manages to overpower Oenomaus due to the latter's weakened condition and constraints.

Gannicus prepares to kill Oenomaus, but at that moment, the rebels bring down the arena, and a canopy collapses over the two.

Spartacus and Agron , disguised as Roman guards, kill the remaining gladiators and guards and rescue Crixus, Rhaskos having been killed only moments earlier.

The three then look for Oenomaus, and find him unconscious and still at Gannicus' mercy. Gannicus decides to help the rebels, and he and Crixus carry Oenomaus to safety.

Oenomaus recuperates at the rebels' hideout. Gannicus takes this time to explain how Melitta chose Oenomaus and what happened was not her fault.

Oenomaus spurns him as a selfish man, and Gannicus leaves, feeling guilty for all of the horrible things that he has done to his former friend.

Oenomaus is soon back on his feet, and happily greets his former students as allies, including Spartacus. He quickly rises to a prominent position, set to the task of training the rebels and keeping them at peace with each other.

Like Crixus and Lucius , he appeared to hold some sort of doubt of the new German additions. When fighting came between the rebels and the Germans, Oenomaus participates in the fighting, easily besting any who attempted to attack him, despite still being in recovery from his injuries.

After conflicts have subsided, Oenomaus begins to train the Germans and other rebels in the ways of the gladiator at their temple base. Eventually Gannicus returns with a captured Ilithyia and begins to ask for forgiveness but Oenomaus states he cannot be forgiven and their brotherhood was a lie as Gannicus had always stood for nothing.

Later Spartacus releases Ilithyia and decides to hold a challenge where those who have tension against each other must fight.

He and Gannicus are paired up against Crixus and Agron in contest. The duo then cooperate together and easily best their opponents and thus establishing a sliver of trust and brotherhood back between the two.

When Glaber and his men including Varinius attack Spartacus' Rebel stronghold, Oenomaus proves a formidable opponent in the fighting.

Whether by choice or the orders of Spartacus, he remains at the temple while the other gladiators use guerrilla tactics to weaken the Roman forces before they arrive.

When the initial wave of troops breach the wall, Oenomaus kills many of them with relative ease, despite still recovering from his injuries and being without his preferred weapons.

Later, when the temple is under siege by Glaber's machines and the walls are ruined, Oenomaus finds no match in the Romans until he faces the Egyptian.

Armed with a single sword, and no shield, he against the Egyptian's dual daggers, the two clash for an extended period.

Then, twisting his penetrated dagger, the Egyptian rends Oenomaus' left eye, destroying it in the process.

Luckily for the former Doctore, Gannicus, seeing his friend in peril, kicks the Egyptian to the ground and supports the wounded Oenomaus through the tunnels and to safety.

Oenomaus would later recover to the point that he can battle, and his mode is in very high spirit, as he fully embraces their cause and admires Spartacus ambitions and thinks very highly of him.

He was tasked with leading the remaining rebels down the mountain and flanking the Romans as Spartacus, Crixus, Gannicus and Agron engaged Glaber's army.

Although not nearly at full strength and badly wounded from battles in the Pit, torture, the fall of the arena and his previous encounter with the Egyptian, he easily kills several soldiers.

Gannicus, spotting the Egyptian engages him with haste. Although displaying a valiant effort he is quickly overpowered and knocked to the ground.

As the Egyptian motions to deal a crippling blow, Oenomaus intervenes saving Gannicus' life. Death of Oenomaus by the Egyptian. Oenomaus delivers a grave wound to the Egyptians lower abdomen and knocks him down with a powerful punch, remarking, "I owe you pain.

Funding is more available for natural and engineering sciences than in letters. Sometimes, normal work and research activity are combined.

Prior to introduction of the Bologna process, Finland required at least 42 credit weeks 1, hours of formal coursework.

The requirement was removed in , leaving the decision to individual universities, which may delegate the authority to faculties or individual professors.

The duration of graduate studies varies. It is possible to graduate three years after the master's degree, while much longer periods are not uncommon.

The dissertation can either be a monograph or it an edited collection of 3 to 7 journal articles. Students unable or unwilling to write a dissertation may qualify for a licentiate degree by completing the coursework requirement and writing a shorter thesis, usually summarizing one year of research.

When the dissertation is ready, the faculty names two expert pre-examiners with doctoral degrees from the outside the university.

During the pre-examination process, the student may receive comments on the work and respond with modifications. When granting this permission, the faculty names the opponent for the thesis defence, who must also be an outside expert, with at least a doctorate.

In all Finnish universities, long tradition requires that the printed dissertation hang on a cord by a public university noticeboard for at least ten days prior to for the dissertation defence.

The doctoral dissertation takes place in public. The opponent and the candidate conduct a formal debate, usually wearing white tie , under the supervision of the thesis supervisor.

Family, friends, colleagues and the members of the research community customarily attend the defence. After a formal entrance, the candidate begins with an approximately minute popular lecture lectio praecursoria , that is meant to introduce laymen to the thesis topic.

The opponent follows with a short talk on the topic, after which the pair critically discuss the dissertation. The proceedings take two to three hours.

Any member of the public then has an opportunity to raise questions, although this is rare. Immediately after the defence, the supervisor, the opponent and the candidate drink coffee with the public.

Usually, the attendees of the defence are given the printed dissertation. Usually, the candidate invites their family, colleagues and collaborators.

Doctoral graduates are often Doctors of Philosophy filosofian tohtori , but many fields retain their traditional titles: Doctor of Medicine lääketieteen tohtori , Doctor of Science in Technology tekniikan tohtori , Doctor of Science in Arts Art and Design , etc.

The doctorate is a formal requirement for a docenture or professor's position, although these in practice require postdoctoral research and further experience.

Exceptions may be granted by the university governing board, but this is uncommon, and usually due to other work and expertise considered equivalent.

After , only one type of doctoral degree remained: the "doctorate" Doctorat. This diploma is similar in spirit to the older State doctorate, and the requirements for obtaining it are similar to those necessary to obtain tenure in other systems.

Before only professors or senior full researchers of similar rank were normally authorized to supervise a doctoral candidate's work.

Today, the doctorate doctorat is a research-only degree. It is a national degree and its requirements are fixed by the minister of higher education and research.

Only public institutions award the doctorate. It can be awarded in any field of study. The master's degree is a prerequisite.

The normal duration is three years. The redaction of a comprehensive thesis constitutes the bulk of the doctoral work.

While the length of the thesis varies according to the discipline, it is rarely less than pages, and often substantially more.

Doctoral candidates can apply for a three-year fellowship. Since candidates follow in-service training, but there is no written examination for the doctorate.

The candidate has to write a thesis that is read by two external reviewers. The head of the institution decides whether the candidate can defend the thesis, after considering the external reviews.

The jury members are designated by the head of the institution. The candidate's supervisor and the external reviewers are generally jury members.

The maximum number of jury members is 8. The defense generally lasts 45 minutes in scientific fields, followed by 1 — 2 and a half hours of questions from the jury or other doctors present.

The defense and questions are public. The jury then deliberates in private and then declares the candidate admitted or "postponed".

The latter is rare. New regulations were set in and do not award distinctions. The diploma is a first-degree. Doctoral degrees in Germany are research doctorates and are awarded by a process called Promotion "promotion".

The concept of a US-style professional doctorate as an entry-level professional qualification does not exist. However, in medicine, "doctoral" dissertations are often written alongside undergraduate study.

The European Research Council decided in that such Dr. Most doctorates are awarded with specific Latin designations for the field of research except for engineering, where the designation is German , instead of a general name for all fields such as the Ph.

The most important degrees are:. Over fifty such designations exist, many of them rare or no longer in use.

As a title, the degree is commonly written in front of the name in abbreviated form, e. Max Mustermann or Dr.

Max Mustermann , dropping the designation entirely. However, leaving out the designation is only allowed when the doctorate degree is not an honorary doctorate, which must be indicated by Dr.

Although the honorific does not become part of the name, holders can demand that the title appear in official documents.

The title is not mandatory. The honorific is commonly used in formal letters. For holders of other titles, only the highest title is mentioned.

Multiple holders of doctorate degrees can be addressed as Dres. Professional doctorates obtained in other countries, not requiring a thesis or not being third cycle qualifications under the Bologna process, can only be used postnominally, e.

Schmidt", [84] for a person who would be addressed as "Prof. Schmidt" in English. In the German university system it is common to write two doctoral theses, the inaugural thesis Inauguraldissertation , completing a course of study, and the habilitation thesis Habilitationsschrift , which opens the road to a professorship.

Max Mustermann. It is considered as an additional academic qualification rather than an academic degree formally. It qualifies the owner to teach at German universities facultas docendi.

The holder of a Habilitation receives the authorization to teach a certain subject venia legendi. This has been the traditional prerequisite for attaining Privatdozent PD and employment as a full university professor.

With the introduction of Juniorprofessuren —around —as an alternative track towards becoming a professor at universities with tenure , Habilitation is no longer the only university career track.

In India , doctorates are offered by universities. Entry requirements include master's degree. Some universities consider undergraduate degrees in professional areas such as engineering, medicine or law as qualifications for pursuing doctorate level degrees.

Entrance examinations are held for almost all programs. In most universities, coursework duration and thesis is 5—6 years.

The most common doctoral degree is Ph. Italy uses a three-level degree system. The first-level degree, called a " laurea " Bachelor's degree , requires three years and a short thesis.

The second-level degree, called a " laurea magistrale " Master's degree , is obtained after two additional years, specializing in a branch of the field.

This degree requires more advanced thesis work, usually involving academic research or an internship.

The final degree is called a " dottorato di ricerca " Ph. Alternatively, after obtaining the laurea or the laurea magistrale one can complete a "Master's" first-level Master's after the laurea ; second-level Master's after the laurea magistrale of one or two years, usually including an internship.

An Italian "Master's" is not the same as a master's degree; it is intended to be more focused on professional training and practical experience.

Graduates in the fields of Education, Art and Music are also called Dr. Many professional titles, such as ingegnere engineer are awarded only upon passing a post-graduation examination esame di stato , and registration in the relevant professional association.

The first institution in Italy to create a doctoral program Ph. Until the s, most natural science and engineering doctorates in Japan were earned by industrial researchers in Japanese companies.

These degrees were awarded by the employees' former university, usually after years of research in industrial laboratories.

The only requirement is submission of a dissertation, along with articles published in well-known journals.

It produced the majority of engineering doctoral degrees from national universities. This curriculum is professionally oriented, [99] but unlike in the US the program does not provide education sufficient for a law license.

All candidates for a bar license must pass the bar exam Shihou shiken , attend the Legal Training and Research Institute and pass the practical exam Nikai Shiken or Shihou Shushusei koushi.

The traditional academic system of the Netherlands provided basic academic diploma: propaedeuse and three academic degrees: kandidaat the lowest degree , depending on gender doctorandus or doctoranda drs.

After successful completion of the first year of university, the student was awarded the propaedeutic diploma not a degree. In some fields, this diploma was abolished in the s.

In physics and mathematics, the student could directly obtain a kandidaats candidate diploma in two years. The candidate diploma was all but abolished by It used to be attained after completion of the majority of courses of the academic study usually after completion of course requirements of the third year in the program , after which the student was allowed to begin work on their doctorandus thesis.

In addition to these 'general' degrees, specific titles equivalent to the doctorandus degree were awarded for law: meester master mr.

Following the Bologna protocol the Dutch adopted the Anglo-Saxon system of academic degrees. The old candidate's degree was revived to become the bachelor's degree and the doctorandus' mr and ir degree were replaced by master's degrees.

Dutch university programmes tend to include advanced subject matter that e. Students can only enroll in a doctorate system after completing a research university level master's degree; although dispensation can be granted on a case by case basis after scrutiny of the individual's portfolio.

Research can also be conducted without official research assistant status, for example through a business-sponsored research laboratory.

Every Ph. The promotor professor determines whether the thesis quality suffices and can be submitted to the committee of experts.

A committee of experts in the field review the thesis. Failures at this stage are rare because supervisors withhold inadequate work.

The supervisors and promotor lose prestige among their colleagues should they allow a substandard thesis to be submitted.

After reviewer approval, the candidate publishes the thesis generally more than copies and sends it to colleagues, friends and family with an invitation to the public defense.

The degree is awarded in a formal, public, defense session, in which the thesis is defended against critical questions of the "opposition" the review committee.

Failure during this session is possible, but rare. Before the defense there may or may not be a public presentation, lasting 10 minutes e.

Eindhoven University to exactly half hour e. Delft University. The actual defense lasts exactly the assigned time slot 45 minutes to 1 hour exactly depending on the university after which the defense is stopped by the bedel who closes the process.

The doctor's title is the highest academic degree in the Netherlands. In research doctorates the degree is always Ph.

Although the title doctor is informally called Ph. All other university titles B. Any person thus can adopt the Ph. Those who obtained a degree in a foreign country can only use the Dutch title drs.

Dutch doctors may use the letter D behind their name instead of the uncapitalized shortcut dr. Those who have multiple doctor dr. In Belgium 's Flemish Community the doctorandus title was only used by those who actually started their doctoral work.

Doctorandus is still used as a synonym for a Ph. The licentiaat licensee title was in use for a regular graduate until the Bologna reform changed the licentiaat degree to the master's degree the Bologna reform abolished the two-year kandidaat degree and introduced a three-year academic bachelor's degree instead.

In the Russian Empire the academic degree "doctor of the sciences" doktor nauk marked the highest academic degree that can be achieved by an examination.

The "doctor nauk" degree was introduced in Russia in , abolished in , and revived in the USSR in A lower degree, " candidate [doctor] of the sciences " kandidat nauk ; first introduced in the USSR on January 13, , by a decision of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR , is, roughly, the Russian equivalent to the research doctorate in other countries.

Doctoral degrees are regulated by Royal Decree R. They are granted by the university on behalf of the king. Its diploma has the force of a public document.

All doctoral programs are research-oriented. A minimum of 4 years of study is required, divided into 2 stages:. Since September and regulated by Royal Decree R.

In the public defense the doctor is notified if the thesis has passed or not passed. The Apto Cum Laude mark is awarded after the public defense as the result of a private, anonymous vote.

Votes are verified by the university. In the same Royal Decree the initial 3-year study period was replaced by a Research master's degree one or two years; Professional master's degrees do not grant direct access to Ph.

An approved project earns a master's degree that grants access to a Ph. A doctorate is required in order to teach at the university. Only Ph.

From , Complutense University was the only one in Spain authorised to confer the doctorate. This law remained in effect until , when the University of Salamanca joined in commemoration of its septcentenary.

In , the right was extended to all Spanish universities. All doctorate holders are reciprocally recognised as equivalent in Germany and Spain according to the "Bonn Agreement of November 14, ".

The doctorate has long existed in the UK as, originally, the second degree in divinity, law, medicine and music. But it was not until the late 19th century that the research doctorate, now known as the higher doctorate, was introduced.

The first higher doctorate was the Doctor of Science at Durham University , introduced in The PhD was adopted in the UK following a joint decision in by British universities, although it took much longer for it to become established.

Oxford became the first university to institute the new degree, although naming it the DPhil. At Cambridge, for example, PhDs wear a master's gown with scarlet facings rather than the full scarlet gown of the higher doctors, while the University of Wales gave PhDs crimson gowns rather than scarlet.

Today, except for those awarded honoris causa , all doctorates granted by British universities are research doctorates, in that their main and in many cases only component is the submission of an extensive and substantial thesis or portfolio of original research, examined by an expert panel appointed by the university.

UK doctorates are categorised as: [25]. These are the most common doctorates in the UK and are normally awarded as PhDs.

However, the assessment of the PhD remains based on the production of a thesis or equivalent and its defence at a viva voce oral examination, normally held in front of at least two examiners, one internal and one external.

Courses normally last three years, although it is common for students to be initially registered for MPhil degrees and then formally transferred onto the PhD after a year or two.

Students who are not considered likely to complete a PhD may be offered the opportunity to complete an MPhil instead. Integrated doctorates, originally known as 'New Route PhDs', were introduced from onwards.

These integrate teaching at master's level during the first one or two years of the degree, either alongside research or as a preliminary to starting research.

These courses usually offer a master's-level exit degree after the taught courses are completed. While passing the taught elements is often required, examination of the final doctorate is still by thesis or equivalent alone.

Higher doctorates are awarded in recognition of a substantial body of original research undertaken over the course of many years. Typically the candidate submits a collection of previously published, peer-refereed work, which is reviewed by a committee of internal and external academics who decide whether the candidate deserves the doctorate.

The higher doctorate is similar in some respects to the habilitation in some European countries. However, the purpose of the award is significantly different.

While the habilitation formally determines whether an academic is suitably qualified to be a university professor, the higher doctorate does not qualify the holder for a position but rather recognises their contribution to research.

In terms of number of higher doctorates awarded not including honorary doctorates the DSc was most popular, but the number of awards was very low: the responding institutions had averaged an award of at most one earned higher doctorate per year over the period — Most British universities award degrees honoris causa to recognise individuals who have made a substantial contribution to a particular field.

Usually an appropriate higher doctorate is used in these circumstances, depending on the candidate's achievements.

However, some universities differentiate between honorary and substantive doctorates, using the degree of Doctor of the University D.

The structure of US doctoral programs is more formal and complex than some others. US research doctorates are awarded for successfully completing and defending independent research presented in the form of a dissertation, along with advanced study.

Multiple professional degrees use the term "doctor" in their title, such as Juris Doctor and Doctor of Medicine , but these degrees do not always contain an independent research component or always require a dissertation and should not be confused with Ph.

In legal studies the Ph. Many universities offer Ph. Most often, Ph. The most common research doctorate is the Doctor of Philosophy Ph.

This degree was first awarded in the U. Unlike the introduction of the professional doctorate M. The median number of years for completion of US doctoral degrees is seven.

When so admitted, the student is expected to have mastered the material covered in the master's degree despite not holding one, though this tradition is under heavy criticism.

While not authoritative, the International Affairs Office of the U. Department of Education listed over 20 "frequently" awarded research doctorate titles identified by the National Science Foundation NSF in a document as representing degrees equivalent in research content to the Ph.

The Doctor of Music and Doctor of Industrial Technology were removed in , after the study evaluation identified that these were fully professional, rather than research-based, doctorates.

Many fields offer professional doctorates or professional master's such as pharmacy , medicine , public health , dentistry , optometry , psychology , speech-language pathology , physical therapy , occupational therapy , health science , advanced practice registered nurse , chiropractic , naturopathic medicine , law , architecture , education , teaching , business , management , and others that require such degrees for professional practice or licensure.

Some of these degrees are also termed " first professional degrees ," since they are the first field-specific master's or doctoral degrees.

A Doctor of Pharmacy is awarded as the professional degree in pharmacy replacing a bachelor's degree. It is the only professional pharmacy degree awarded in the US.

Pharmacy programs vary in length between 4 years for matriculants with a B. In the twenty-first century professional doctorates appeared in other fields, such as the Doctor of Audiology in Advanced Practice Registered Nurses were expected to completely transition to the Doctor of Nursing Practice by , and physical therapists to the Doctor of Physical Therapy by Professional associations play a central role in this transformation amid criticisms on the lack of proper criteria to assure appropriate rigor.

In many cases Masters level programs were relabeled as doctoral programs. A doctoral degree can be revoked or rescinded by the university that awarded it.

Possible reasons include plagiarism, criminal or unethical activities of the author, or malfunction or manipulation of academic evaluation processes.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Academic or professional degree. For other uses, see Doctor disambiguation. Further information: Doctor title.

Main article: Licentiate. It is not to be confused with Postdoctoral researcher. See also: Professional degree and List of doctoral degrees in the US.

Main article: Honorary degree. Main article: List of doctoral degrees awarded by country. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: List of doctoral degrees in the US.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. December Metzler, pp. Stewart, Josef W. Meri Degrees, or Ijazah. Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia.

Current Sociology. In the s, the renowned Orientalist Alfred Guillaume noted strong resemblances between Muslim and Western Christian institutions of higher learning.

An example he cited is the ijazah, which he recognized as being akin to the medieval licentia docendi, the precursor of the modern university degree.

Cambridge [u. It remains the case that no equivalent of the bachelor's degree, the licentia docendi, or higher degrees ever emerged in the medieval or early modern Islamic madrasas.

Archived from the original on Retrieved Catholic Encyclopaedia. Columbia University. Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 7 October King's College organized a medical faculty in and was the first institution in the North American Colonies to confer the degree of Doctor of Medicine.

The first graduates in medicine from the College were Robert Tucker and Samuel Kissarn, who received the degree of Bachelor of Medicine in May , and that of Doctor of Medicine in May and May , respectively.

Training for the Public Profession of the Law. Carnegie's Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin Boston: Merrymount Press.

Medical Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 9 October UK Council for Graduate Education. Perraton 17 June A History of Foreign Students in Britain.

Quality Assurance Agency. September Archived from the original PDF on 18 September Retrieved 18 June

Architect Ole Sverre designed three new cafeterias on the Freia grounds in It advises the institute management and the executive board and makes an annual evaluation of the Shishi Liu of the institute. Regulär kann ein Timelord https://nzredbar.co/beste-filme-stream/ggrard-philipe.php Prozess zwölfmal durchleben und damit insgesamt dreizehn Inkarnationen haben. DiГ¤t Katzenberger denn, der Doktor empfängt Sie jetzt. Facharzt -ärztin m here für Geschlechtskrankheiten. Fans der Serie und des auf ihr basierenden fiktiven Universums Whoniverse werden als Whovians bezeichnet. Ich will wissen, wie viele source euch wieder learn more here Bord Doctore.

On her way out, Naevia tells Doctore the truth; that Barca was killed for supposed disloyalty which is revealed that Ashur had set Barca up to avoid paying him his winnings.

Doctore is horrified that a gladiator who brought great honor to the ludus as well as a dear friend of his would be discarded after he had rightfully earned his freedom.

Hence, his longstanding trust in Batiatus is left deeply shaken. On the eve of Batiatus' celebration for receiving patronage from Claudius Glaber , Doctore watches as the Roman guards abuse the gladiators needlessly.

He brings the matter to Batiatus, who dismisses it. He then questions Barca's murder and Batiatus dismisses that also, lying that Barca disobeyed his orders and had to be punished for it, but Doctore doesn't seem convinced especially about Ashur's involvement.

Batiatus then announces that those matters will soon be Doctore's responsibility as Batiatus has prepared documents to free Doctore and hand the ludus over to him, and he calls Doctore by his real name: Oenomaus.

He then leaves to give Crixus notice that he will fight to the death with Spartacus at Batiatus' celebration.

At the celebration, Doctore observes the deathmatch between Spartacus and Crixus. He notices something is off as Crixus motions toward Spartacus, who leaps off the shield and onto the balcony of the villa, killing Sextus.

Just as Spartacus moves against Batiatus, Doctore lashes his whip and catches his arm, saving Batiatus.

Crixus cuts the whip and moves to take his vengeance on the guards along with the other gladiators.

Doctore reaches Crixus and demands to know the reason for the rebellion and Crixus explains Batiatus' other deceptions: that Sura was also murdered on Batiatus' orders and that he had Crixus' food poisoned to ensure his death.

Doctore, enraged, chases Ashur down to the gladiators' baths and confronts him regarding his lies about Barca 's fate.

A brief duel ensues and Doctore emerges victorious as Ashur pleads for an honorable death. Granting his last wish, Doctore prepares for the killing strike just as Ashur whips around and stabs him in the leg, fleeing immediately after.

Doctore chases Ashur to the courtyard, but Ashur manages to escape. He finds Spartacus just as Aurelia kills Numerius , and asks "How many more must die?

Spartacus replies, "I see but one. Batiatus pleads for "Oenomaus," revealing his true name to the gladiators, but Doctore remains silent and watches as Batiatus drops his sword and is killed by Spartacus.

He leaves the ludus, along with the other gladiators and slaves, as they prepare to escape and exact their revenge on Rome.

Having forsaken his title of Doctore, Oenomaus abandons the other slaves and wanders Capua in disguise, and takes to watching the continued games in the arena.

However, with both the houses of Solonius and Batiatus no longer providing gladiators for the crowd to watch, the games are pathetic in comparison to those of previous years.

Later, he is accosted in the streets at night by a group of men whom have recognized him and wish to claim the price on his head.

They attempt to kill him, but he easily slaughters them. That morning he witnesses the arrival of Praetor Claudius Glaber and his contingent of Roman soldiers, capable of wiping out the newly formed resistance.

Oenomaus seeks Spartacus and the other rebels in the sewers and warns them of the impending attack, although refusing to help them.

With nothing left to live for, he willingly returns to "the only place left for an animal without honor": The Pit.

He applies the white face-paint once used to humiliate him, and begins fighting any opponent that will face him under the alias Addonexus , hoping to be killed eventually.

His first opponent - Liberius - wounds him in the shoulder, but Oenomaus is victorious. Not only is he victorious, but he requests to be pitted against more fighters.

He continues to battle opponents, until one - Caratacus - nearly beats him to death with a hammer.

Before he can finish Oenomaus off, however, Catatacus is killed by Ashur , as he leaps into the arena to capture his former teacher in his weakened condition.

The Syrian then presents the former Doctore to Glaber, having been working in secret with Lucretia, and staging the capture as a gift from the gods.

Oenomaus being tortured and interrogated by Ashur. After capture by Ashur, Oenomaus goes through painful torture at his hands in hopes of breaking him and making him give up Spartacus' location.

However, this does not work and a tired Ashur attempts to kill Oenomaus out of frustration, but Lucretia stops him from doing so.

Soon after, Ashur tells Oenomaus this and it enrages him to the point that he mistakenly reveals the location of Spartacus and the rebels.

Crixus , Rhaskos , and Acer , are imprisoned in the ludus along with Oenomaus. Upon seeing him, Crixus tells Oenomaus of how they have found Naevia, but Oenomaus tells him that women are delicate creatures, unable to shift his thoughts from his wife's betrayal.

The prisoners are then presented to a party of Roman nobles, where Acer is tortured and killed and Praetor Varinius condemning the rest to die fighting in the arena.

After much waiting, Oenomaus, Crixus, and Rhaskos are presented in the arena for execution, with their hands and legs chained and each armed with a single, blunt sword.

They realize that the "fight" to come is but a show: they have been given inferior weapons to further remove any chance of survival.

They are shocked to discover that Gannicus has been recruited to fight among the opposing gladiators. When Crixus asks why Gannicus would do such a thing, Oenomaus answers by saying that he is a man without honor.

Gannicus awkwardly greets his former brother by saying they at last face each other upon the sands as Melitta had always feared.

Oenomaus questions Gannicus asking if it was true that he slept with Melitta the night she died. Gannicus hesitates to answer, and Oenomaus, believing this to be a yes, ferociously attacks in response, beginning the games.

Gannicus and Oenomaus focus solely on each other, unaware that the rebels are secretly in the arena. Oenomaus kicks Gannicus, which causes him to fall to the ground on his back, and would have killed Gannicus despite his constraints, but an enemy gladiator interferes.

As the two begin fighting again, they appear evenly matched, but Gannicus manages to overpower Oenomaus due to the latter's weakened condition and constraints.

Gannicus prepares to kill Oenomaus, but at that moment, the rebels bring down the arena, and a canopy collapses over the two.

Spartacus and Agron , disguised as Roman guards, kill the remaining gladiators and guards and rescue Crixus, Rhaskos having been killed only moments earlier.

The three then look for Oenomaus, and find him unconscious and still at Gannicus' mercy. Gannicus decides to help the rebels, and he and Crixus carry Oenomaus to safety.

Oenomaus recuperates at the rebels' hideout. Gannicus takes this time to explain how Melitta chose Oenomaus and what happened was not her fault.

Oenomaus spurns him as a selfish man, and Gannicus leaves, feeling guilty for all of the horrible things that he has done to his former friend.

Oenomaus is soon back on his feet, and happily greets his former students as allies, including Spartacus.

He quickly rises to a prominent position, set to the task of training the rebels and keeping them at peace with each other.

Like Crixus and Lucius , he appeared to hold some sort of doubt of the new German additions. When fighting came between the rebels and the Germans, Oenomaus participates in the fighting, easily besting any who attempted to attack him, despite still being in recovery from his injuries.

After conflicts have subsided, Oenomaus begins to train the Germans and other rebels in the ways of the gladiator at their temple base.

Eventually Gannicus returns with a captured Ilithyia and begins to ask for forgiveness but Oenomaus states he cannot be forgiven and their brotherhood was a lie as Gannicus had always stood for nothing.

Later Spartacus releases Ilithyia and decides to hold a challenge where those who have tension against each other must fight.

He and Gannicus are paired up against Crixus and Agron in contest. The duo then cooperate together and easily best their opponents and thus establishing a sliver of trust and brotherhood back between the two.

When Glaber and his men including Varinius attack Spartacus' Rebel stronghold, Oenomaus proves a formidable opponent in the fighting.

Whether by choice or the orders of Spartacus, he remains at the temple while the other gladiators use guerrilla tactics to weaken the Roman forces before they arrive.

When the initial wave of troops breach the wall, Oenomaus kills many of them with relative ease, despite still recovering from his injuries and being without his preferred weapons.

Later, when the temple is under siege by Glaber's machines and the walls are ruined, Oenomaus finds no match in the Romans until he faces the Egyptian.

Armed with a single sword, and no shield, he against the Egyptian's dual daggers, the two clash for an extended period.

Then, twisting his penetrated dagger, the Egyptian rends Oenomaus' left eye, destroying it in the process. Luckily for the former Doctore, Gannicus, seeing his friend in peril, kicks the Egyptian to the ground and supports the wounded Oenomaus through the tunnels and to safety.

Oenomaus would later recover to the point that he can battle, and his mode is in very high spirit, as he fully embraces their cause and admires Spartacus ambitions and thinks very highly of him.

He was tasked with leading the remaining rebels down the mountain and flanking the Romans as Spartacus, Crixus, Gannicus and Agron engaged Glaber's army.

Although not nearly at full strength and badly wounded from battles in the Pit, torture, the fall of the arena and his previous encounter with the Egyptian, he easily kills several soldiers.

Gannicus, spotting the Egyptian engages him with haste. Although displaying a valiant effort he is quickly overpowered and knocked to the ground.

As the Egyptian motions to deal a crippling blow, Oenomaus intervenes saving Gannicus' life. Death of Oenomaus by the Egyptian.

Oenomaus delivers a grave wound to the Egyptians lower abdomen and knocks him down with a powerful punch, remarking, "I owe you pain.

Together they deal many more blows to the roman soldiers. The Egyptian recovers and receives two more wounds; one across the chest by Oenomaus the other in the arm by Gannicus.

The Egyptian parries an attack by Gannicus knocking him aside. Oenomaus receives a fatal stab through his torso.

The Egyptian, seriously wounded with a lowered guard is attacked by an enraged Gannicus. Although the Egyptian makes a few parries he is quickly overwhelmed and brutally killed when Gannicus destroys a large part of his skull, killing him instantly.

Gannicus then heads to Oenomaus' side, embracing him in his arms. Oenomaus is warm with the thought of meeting his wife in the afterlife and promises they will greet Gannicus as a brother when his time comes.

Oenomaus takes his final breath and dies in the arms of a weeping Gannicus. He dies with honor, dignity, pride, and an amended relationship with his old friend Gannicus.

Despite Oenomaus' death in Vengeance , his legacy remains prominent throughout the final season. With Oenomaus' death, Gannicus stays with the rebels in honor of the fallen friend.

While he still doubts the cause, he fights in Oenomaus' honor but still doesn't desire to be a leader.

In addition, he also takes on Oenomaus' role in counselling Spartacus. Before his death at the gates of Rome, Crixus rallies his troops with a stirring motivational speech mirroring that of Oenomaus' own before the gladiator recruits, and even mentions the former Doctore as an inspirational influence.

At the tribute games to honor Crixus, when Laeta questions Spartacus on why Gannicus, a free man, would fight against the Republic Spartacus remarks that he did so to honour the memory of Oenomaus, with Spartacus fondly remarking him as the man who taught him and many others how to fight.

During Crixus' funeral pure, the rest of the Rebels call out the names of the fallen to honor them, with Gannicus shouting the name of Oenomaus.

During Gannicus' dying moments as he is crucified, he sees Oenomaus smiling upon him, and an arena cheering him on, allowing him to die happy.

The historic Oenomaus was involved in one of the first major successes of the slave army, the rout of the army of the praetor, Gaius Claudius Glaber , who had tried to lay siege to the slave army near Mount Vesuvius.

Oenomaus fell in an early battle, possibly during the winter of BC when the slave armies were plundering cities and towns in the south of Italy, and so his premature demise in the show is not entirely innacurate to the historical figure.

He embraces it, caresses it, fucks it. We are more. We are gladiators! Study, train, bleed, and one day your name will be legend, spoken in hushed whispers of fear and awe, as the city speaks of Crixus, Champion of Capua!

Yet his legend was not birthed in the Arena, it was givin life here, in this ludus! He attempts to press, before regaining balance!

Allow advantage to your back -- and you are dead But yours may yet be redeemed -- two fingers, a sign of surrender, a plea of mercy to the Editor of the Games.

When a university wishes to formally recognize an individual's contributions to a particular field or philanthropic efforts, it may choose to grant a doctoral degree honoris causa 'for the sake of the honor' , waiving the usual requirements for granting the degree.

In Argentina the doctorate doctorado [64] is the highest academic degree. The intention is that candidates produce original contributions in their field knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.

It is reviewed by a Doctoral Committee composed of examiners external to the program and at least one examiner external to the institution.

The degree is conferred after a successful dissertation defence. Doctoral candidates are normally required to have a master's degree in a related field.

Exceptions are based on their individual academic merit. A second and a third foreign language are other common requirements, although the requirements regarding proficiency commonly are not strict.

The admissions process varies by institution. Some require candidates to take tests while others base admissions on a research proposal application and interview only.

In both instances however, a faculty member must agree prior to admission to supervise the applicant.

Requirements usually include satisfactory performance in advanced graduate courses, passing an oral qualifying exam and submitting a thesis that must represent an original and relevant contribution to existing knowledge.

The thesis is examined in a final public oral exam administered by at least five faculty members, two of whom must be external.

After completion, which normally consumes 4 years, the candidate is commonly awarded the degree of Doutor Doctor followed by the main area of specialization, e.

Physics, Chemistry, Biological and Life Sciences, etc. All graduate programs in Brazilian public universities are tuition-free mandated by the Brazilian constitution.

Competition for graduate financial aid is intense and most scholarships support at most 2 years of Master's studies and 4 years of doctoral studies.

A degree of Doutor usually enables an individual to apply for a junior faculty position equivalent to a US assistant professor.

Progression to full professorship, known as Professor Titular requires that the candidate be successful in a competitive public exam and normally takes additional years.

In the federal university system, doctors who are admitted as junior faculty members may progress usually by seniority to the rank of associate professor, then become eligible to take the competitive exam for vacant full professorships.

In recent years some initiatives as jointly supervised doctorates e. Denmark offers four levels of degrees: 1 a three-year bachelor's degree e.

Bachelor of Arts degree ; 2 a five-year candidate's degree e. Doctor Philosophiae , which is the higher doctorate. A three-year extended research program, leading to the magister's degree was phased out to meet the international standards of the Bologna Process.

For the Ph. In the disputation, the candidate defends their thesis against three official opponents as well as opponents from the auditorium ex auditorio.

In Egypt, the highest degree doctorate is awarded by Al-Azhar University est. The Medical doctorate abbreviated as M.

The M. It takes on average three to five years. Many postgraduate medical and surgical specialties students earn a doctorate.

After finishing a 6-year medical school and one-year internship house officer , physicians and surgeons earn the M. They can then apply to earn a master's degree or a speciality diploma, then an MD degree in a specialty.

The Egyptian M. For example, M. Geriatrics means a doctorate in Geriatrics , which is equivalent to a Ph. The Finnish requirement for the entrance into doctoral studies is a master's degree or equivalent.

All universities have the right to award doctorates. The student must:. Entrance to a doctoral program is available only for holders of a master's degree; there is no honors procedure for recruiting Bachelors.

Entrance is not as controlled as in undergraduate studies, where a strict numerus clausus is applied. Usually, a prospective student discusses their plans with a professor.

If the professor agrees to accept the student, the student applies for admission. The professor may recruit students to their group.

The student must obtain funding either by working in a research unit or through private scholarships. Funding is more available for natural and engineering sciences than in letters.

Sometimes, normal work and research activity are combined. Prior to introduction of the Bologna process, Finland required at least 42 credit weeks 1, hours of formal coursework.

The requirement was removed in , leaving the decision to individual universities, which may delegate the authority to faculties or individual professors.

The duration of graduate studies varies. It is possible to graduate three years after the master's degree, while much longer periods are not uncommon.

The dissertation can either be a monograph or it an edited collection of 3 to 7 journal articles. Students unable or unwilling to write a dissertation may qualify for a licentiate degree by completing the coursework requirement and writing a shorter thesis, usually summarizing one year of research.

When the dissertation is ready, the faculty names two expert pre-examiners with doctoral degrees from the outside the university.

During the pre-examination process, the student may receive comments on the work and respond with modifications. When granting this permission, the faculty names the opponent for the thesis defence, who must also be an outside expert, with at least a doctorate.

In all Finnish universities, long tradition requires that the printed dissertation hang on a cord by a public university noticeboard for at least ten days prior to for the dissertation defence.

The doctoral dissertation takes place in public. The opponent and the candidate conduct a formal debate, usually wearing white tie , under the supervision of the thesis supervisor.

Family, friends, colleagues and the members of the research community customarily attend the defence. After a formal entrance, the candidate begins with an approximately minute popular lecture lectio praecursoria , that is meant to introduce laymen to the thesis topic.

The opponent follows with a short talk on the topic, after which the pair critically discuss the dissertation. The proceedings take two to three hours.

Any member of the public then has an opportunity to raise questions, although this is rare. Immediately after the defence, the supervisor, the opponent and the candidate drink coffee with the public.

Usually, the attendees of the defence are given the printed dissertation. Usually, the candidate invites their family, colleagues and collaborators.

Doctoral graduates are often Doctors of Philosophy filosofian tohtori , but many fields retain their traditional titles: Doctor of Medicine lääketieteen tohtori , Doctor of Science in Technology tekniikan tohtori , Doctor of Science in Arts Art and Design , etc.

The doctorate is a formal requirement for a docenture or professor's position, although these in practice require postdoctoral research and further experience.

Exceptions may be granted by the university governing board, but this is uncommon, and usually due to other work and expertise considered equivalent.

After , only one type of doctoral degree remained: the "doctorate" Doctorat. This diploma is similar in spirit to the older State doctorate, and the requirements for obtaining it are similar to those necessary to obtain tenure in other systems.

Before only professors or senior full researchers of similar rank were normally authorized to supervise a doctoral candidate's work.

Today, the doctorate doctorat is a research-only degree. It is a national degree and its requirements are fixed by the minister of higher education and research.

Only public institutions award the doctorate. It can be awarded in any field of study. The master's degree is a prerequisite.

The normal duration is three years. The redaction of a comprehensive thesis constitutes the bulk of the doctoral work.

While the length of the thesis varies according to the discipline, it is rarely less than pages, and often substantially more. Doctoral candidates can apply for a three-year fellowship.

Since candidates follow in-service training, but there is no written examination for the doctorate. The candidate has to write a thesis that is read by two external reviewers.

The head of the institution decides whether the candidate can defend the thesis, after considering the external reviews. The jury members are designated by the head of the institution.

The candidate's supervisor and the external reviewers are generally jury members. The maximum number of jury members is 8. The defense generally lasts 45 minutes in scientific fields, followed by 1 — 2 and a half hours of questions from the jury or other doctors present.

The defense and questions are public. The jury then deliberates in private and then declares the candidate admitted or "postponed".

The latter is rare. New regulations were set in and do not award distinctions. The diploma is a first-degree. Doctoral degrees in Germany are research doctorates and are awarded by a process called Promotion "promotion".

The concept of a US-style professional doctorate as an entry-level professional qualification does not exist. However, in medicine, "doctoral" dissertations are often written alongside undergraduate study.

The European Research Council decided in that such Dr. Most doctorates are awarded with specific Latin designations for the field of research except for engineering, where the designation is German , instead of a general name for all fields such as the Ph.

The most important degrees are:. Over fifty such designations exist, many of them rare or no longer in use. As a title, the degree is commonly written in front of the name in abbreviated form, e.

Max Mustermann or Dr. Max Mustermann , dropping the designation entirely. However, leaving out the designation is only allowed when the doctorate degree is not an honorary doctorate, which must be indicated by Dr.

Although the honorific does not become part of the name, holders can demand that the title appear in official documents. The title is not mandatory.

The honorific is commonly used in formal letters. For holders of other titles, only the highest title is mentioned. Multiple holders of doctorate degrees can be addressed as Dres.

Professional doctorates obtained in other countries, not requiring a thesis or not being third cycle qualifications under the Bologna process, can only be used postnominally, e.

Schmidt", [84] for a person who would be addressed as "Prof. Schmidt" in English. In the German university system it is common to write two doctoral theses, the inaugural thesis Inauguraldissertation , completing a course of study, and the habilitation thesis Habilitationsschrift , which opens the road to a professorship.

Max Mustermann. It is considered as an additional academic qualification rather than an academic degree formally.

It qualifies the owner to teach at German universities facultas docendi. The holder of a Habilitation receives the authorization to teach a certain subject venia legendi.

This has been the traditional prerequisite for attaining Privatdozent PD and employment as a full university professor. With the introduction of Juniorprofessuren —around —as an alternative track towards becoming a professor at universities with tenure , Habilitation is no longer the only university career track.

In India , doctorates are offered by universities. Entry requirements include master's degree. Some universities consider undergraduate degrees in professional areas such as engineering, medicine or law as qualifications for pursuing doctorate level degrees.

Entrance examinations are held for almost all programs. In most universities, coursework duration and thesis is 5—6 years.

The most common doctoral degree is Ph. Italy uses a three-level degree system. The first-level degree, called a " laurea " Bachelor's degree , requires three years and a short thesis.

The second-level degree, called a " laurea magistrale " Master's degree , is obtained after two additional years, specializing in a branch of the field.

This degree requires more advanced thesis work, usually involving academic research or an internship. The final degree is called a " dottorato di ricerca " Ph.

Alternatively, after obtaining the laurea or the laurea magistrale one can complete a "Master's" first-level Master's after the laurea ; second-level Master's after the laurea magistrale of one or two years, usually including an internship.

An Italian "Master's" is not the same as a master's degree; it is intended to be more focused on professional training and practical experience.

Graduates in the fields of Education, Art and Music are also called Dr. Many professional titles, such as ingegnere engineer are awarded only upon passing a post-graduation examination esame di stato , and registration in the relevant professional association.

The first institution in Italy to create a doctoral program Ph. Until the s, most natural science and engineering doctorates in Japan were earned by industrial researchers in Japanese companies.

These degrees were awarded by the employees' former university, usually after years of research in industrial laboratories.

The only requirement is submission of a dissertation, along with articles published in well-known journals.

It produced the majority of engineering doctoral degrees from national universities. This curriculum is professionally oriented, [99] but unlike in the US the program does not provide education sufficient for a law license.

All candidates for a bar license must pass the bar exam Shihou shiken , attend the Legal Training and Research Institute and pass the practical exam Nikai Shiken or Shihou Shushusei koushi.

The traditional academic system of the Netherlands provided basic academic diploma: propaedeuse and three academic degrees: kandidaat the lowest degree , depending on gender doctorandus or doctoranda drs.

After successful completion of the first year of university, the student was awarded the propaedeutic diploma not a degree.

In some fields, this diploma was abolished in the s. In physics and mathematics, the student could directly obtain a kandidaats candidate diploma in two years.

The candidate diploma was all but abolished by It used to be attained after completion of the majority of courses of the academic study usually after completion of course requirements of the third year in the program , after which the student was allowed to begin work on their doctorandus thesis.

In addition to these 'general' degrees, specific titles equivalent to the doctorandus degree were awarded for law: meester master mr. Following the Bologna protocol the Dutch adopted the Anglo-Saxon system of academic degrees.

The old candidate's degree was revived to become the bachelor's degree and the doctorandus' mr and ir degree were replaced by master's degrees.

Dutch university programmes tend to include advanced subject matter that e. Students can only enroll in a doctorate system after completing a research university level master's degree; although dispensation can be granted on a case by case basis after scrutiny of the individual's portfolio.

Research can also be conducted without official research assistant status, for example through a business-sponsored research laboratory.

Every Ph. The promotor professor determines whether the thesis quality suffices and can be submitted to the committee of experts.

A committee of experts in the field review the thesis. Failures at this stage are rare because supervisors withhold inadequate work.

The supervisors and promotor lose prestige among their colleagues should they allow a substandard thesis to be submitted. After reviewer approval, the candidate publishes the thesis generally more than copies and sends it to colleagues, friends and family with an invitation to the public defense.

The degree is awarded in a formal, public, defense session, in which the thesis is defended against critical questions of the "opposition" the review committee.

Failure during this session is possible, but rare. Before the defense there may or may not be a public presentation, lasting 10 minutes e.

Eindhoven University to exactly half hour e. Delft University. The actual defense lasts exactly the assigned time slot 45 minutes to 1 hour exactly depending on the university after which the defense is stopped by the bedel who closes the process.

The doctor's title is the highest academic degree in the Netherlands. In research doctorates the degree is always Ph. Although the title doctor is informally called Ph.

All other university titles B. Any person thus can adopt the Ph. Those who obtained a degree in a foreign country can only use the Dutch title drs.

Dutch doctors may use the letter D behind their name instead of the uncapitalized shortcut dr. Those who have multiple doctor dr. In Belgium 's Flemish Community the doctorandus title was only used by those who actually started their doctoral work.

Doctorandus is still used as a synonym for a Ph. The licentiaat licensee title was in use for a regular graduate until the Bologna reform changed the licentiaat degree to the master's degree the Bologna reform abolished the two-year kandidaat degree and introduced a three-year academic bachelor's degree instead.

In the Russian Empire the academic degree "doctor of the sciences" doktor nauk marked the highest academic degree that can be achieved by an examination.

The "doctor nauk" degree was introduced in Russia in , abolished in , and revived in the USSR in A lower degree, " candidate [doctor] of the sciences " kandidat nauk ; first introduced in the USSR on January 13, , by a decision of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR , is, roughly, the Russian equivalent to the research doctorate in other countries.

Doctoral degrees are regulated by Royal Decree R. They are granted by the university on behalf of the king. Its diploma has the force of a public document.

All doctoral programs are research-oriented. A minimum of 4 years of study is required, divided into 2 stages:. Since September and regulated by Royal Decree R.

In the public defense the doctor is notified if the thesis has passed or not passed. The Apto Cum Laude mark is awarded after the public defense as the result of a private, anonymous vote.

Votes are verified by the university. In the same Royal Decree the initial 3-year study period was replaced by a Research master's degree one or two years; Professional master's degrees do not grant direct access to Ph.

An approved project earns a master's degree that grants access to a Ph. A doctorate is required in order to teach at the university.

Only Ph. From , Complutense University was the only one in Spain authorised to confer the doctorate. This law remained in effect until , when the University of Salamanca joined in commemoration of its septcentenary.

In , the right was extended to all Spanish universities. All doctorate holders are reciprocally recognised as equivalent in Germany and Spain according to the "Bonn Agreement of November 14, ".

The doctorate has long existed in the UK as, originally, the second degree in divinity, law, medicine and music. But it was not until the late 19th century that the research doctorate, now known as the higher doctorate, was introduced.

The first higher doctorate was the Doctor of Science at Durham University , introduced in The PhD was adopted in the UK following a joint decision in by British universities, although it took much longer for it to become established.

Oxford became the first university to institute the new degree, although naming it the DPhil. At Cambridge, for example, PhDs wear a master's gown with scarlet facings rather than the full scarlet gown of the higher doctors, while the University of Wales gave PhDs crimson gowns rather than scarlet.

Today, except for those awarded honoris causa , all doctorates granted by British universities are research doctorates, in that their main and in many cases only component is the submission of an extensive and substantial thesis or portfolio of original research, examined by an expert panel appointed by the university.

UK doctorates are categorised as: [25]. These are the most common doctorates in the UK and are normally awarded as PhDs.

However, the assessment of the PhD remains based on the production of a thesis or equivalent and its defence at a viva voce oral examination, normally held in front of at least two examiners, one internal and one external.

Courses normally last three years, although it is common for students to be initially registered for MPhil degrees and then formally transferred onto the PhD after a year or two.

Students who are not considered likely to complete a PhD may be offered the opportunity to complete an MPhil instead. Integrated doctorates, originally known as 'New Route PhDs', were introduced from onwards.

These integrate teaching at master's level during the first one or two years of the degree, either alongside research or as a preliminary to starting research.

These courses usually offer a master's-level exit degree after the taught courses are completed. While passing the taught elements is often required, examination of the final doctorate is still by thesis or equivalent alone.

Higher doctorates are awarded in recognition of a substantial body of original research undertaken over the course of many years.

Typically the candidate submits a collection of previously published, peer-refereed work, which is reviewed by a committee of internal and external academics who decide whether the candidate deserves the doctorate.

The higher doctorate is similar in some respects to the habilitation in some European countries. However, the purpose of the award is significantly different.

While the habilitation formally determines whether an academic is suitably qualified to be a university professor, the higher doctorate does not qualify the holder for a position but rather recognises their contribution to research.

In terms of number of higher doctorates awarded not including honorary doctorates the DSc was most popular, but the number of awards was very low: the responding institutions had averaged an award of at most one earned higher doctorate per year over the period — Most British universities award degrees honoris causa to recognise individuals who have made a substantial contribution to a particular field.

Usually an appropriate higher doctorate is used in these circumstances, depending on the candidate's achievements. However, some universities differentiate between honorary and substantive doctorates, using the degree of Doctor of the University D.

The structure of US doctoral programs is more formal and complex than some others. US research doctorates are awarded for successfully completing and defending independent research presented in the form of a dissertation, along with advanced study.

Multiple professional degrees use the term "doctor" in their title, such as Juris Doctor and Doctor of Medicine , but these degrees do not always contain an independent research component or always require a dissertation and should not be confused with Ph.

In legal studies the Ph. Many universities offer Ph. Most often, Ph. The most common research doctorate is the Doctor of Philosophy Ph.

This degree was first awarded in the U. Unlike the introduction of the professional doctorate M.

The median number of years for completion of US doctoral degrees is seven. When so admitted, the student is expected to have mastered the material covered in the master's degree despite not holding one, though this tradition is under heavy criticism.

While not authoritative, the International Affairs Office of the U. Department of Education listed over 20 "frequently" awarded research doctorate titles identified by the National Science Foundation NSF in a document as representing degrees equivalent in research content to the Ph.

The Doctor of Music and Doctor of Industrial Technology were removed in , after the study evaluation identified that these were fully professional, rather than research-based, doctorates.

Many fields offer professional doctorates or professional master's such as pharmacy , medicine , public health , dentistry , optometry , psychology , speech-language pathology , physical therapy , occupational therapy , health science , advanced practice registered nurse , chiropractic , naturopathic medicine , law , architecture , education , teaching , business , management , and others that require such degrees for professional practice or licensure.

Some of these degrees are also termed " first professional degrees ," since they are the first field-specific master's or doctoral degrees.

A Doctor of Pharmacy is awarded as the professional degree in pharmacy replacing a bachelor's degree. It is the only professional pharmacy degree awarded in the US.

Pharmacy programs vary in length between 4 years for matriculants with a B. In the twenty-first century professional doctorates appeared in other fields, such as the Doctor of Audiology in Advanced Practice Registered Nurses were expected to completely transition to the Doctor of Nursing Practice by , and physical therapists to the Doctor of Physical Therapy by Professional associations play a central role in this transformation amid criticisms on the lack of proper criteria to assure appropriate rigor.

In many cases Masters level programs were relabeled as doctoral programs. A doctoral degree can be revoked or rescinded by the university that awarded it.

Possible reasons include plagiarism, criminal or unethical activities of the author, or malfunction or manipulation of academic evaluation processes.

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